Ғылыми жұмыстың тақырыбы: Ұлыбритания мен Қазақ елдерінің ырым-тыйым сөздері.

Зерттеудің мақсаты:    Британдықтар мен қазақ  халқының  ырым-Тыйымдарын  меңгеру, олардың ұқсастықтары мен  айырмашылығын табу.

Зерттеудің міндеттері: Күнделікті өмірде қолданылатын екі елдің  ырым-

тыйым сөздерін талдау,  зерттей барысында,

олардың әдеп-ғұрыптары мен салт-дәстүрлерін

түсіну.

Жұмыстың жаңашылдығы: Ұлыбритания және Қазақ елдерінің  ырым-тыйым сөздерінің ұқсастықтары   мен айырмашылығы.

Тема научного проекта: Суеверия и верования Великобритании и

Казакстана

Цель иследование:  Учить суверия и верования  Великобритани а

Казакстана,

Новизна работы: Сходства и различия  Великобритании и Казакстана

суеверия и верования

 Them of search work:  Kazakh and British superstitions and beliefs

The purpose of study: similarities and differences

between the UK and Kazakhstan superstitions and

beliefs

The research objectives: to study  of Kazakh and British superstitions and beliefs 

The novelty of the work Similarities and differences between the UK and

Kazakhstan, superstitions and beliefs

 Theme: Kazakh and British superstitions and beliefs

Aims: to study   of Kazakh and British superstitions and beliefs.  To know

similarities and differences between the UK and    Kazakhstan,

superstitions and beliefs

I introduction

II  Main Part of

a)Superstitions of Kazakhstan.

b)Superstitions of Britain

c)Superstitions of Kazakhstan  divided  bad luck and good luck.

d)Superstitions of Britain   divided  bad luck and good luck.

e)Superstitions of the similar.

f)Opposite of superstitions.

III Conclution

The novelty of the work.

ПІКІР

Ерназар Мөлдірдің  ғылыми жұмысы нақты  мәліметтер арқылы  зерттеу жүргізіп, сол зертеудің нәтижесінде  тақырыпқа сай жұмыстың жаңашылдығын зерттеп, дәлелдеме ретінде  атап өткен.

Ерназар Мөлдір ізденіс жұмысында айтып кеткендей «Ұлыбритания және қазақ елдерінің ырым-тыйым, наным сөздерін   зерттеу арқылы, осы екі елдің  ырым-тыйым сөздерінің жақсы және жаман жақтарын зерделеп, талдап. Әр ұлттың өз салт-дәстүріне сай  ырым-тыйымдарының бар екенін және олардың өмірде қолдануы мен  одан сақтануы туралы зерттеген.  Екі елдің жақсы және жаман жақтарының ұқсастығы мен  айырмашылығын тауып жазған. Ырым-тыйым сөздерін сипаттай отырып,   өзге елдерге барғанда немесе өз елімізде ырым-тыйым сөздерін  ескеру  басты мақсат екендігі осы жұмысында айқын көрініс тапқан.

Осы тақырыпты таңдаған 6«Ә» сынып оқушысы Ерназар Мөлдірдің  бойынан көп ізденіс пен талпынысты байқадым.Таңдалған тақырыптың мазмұны ашылып, зерттелді,бұл жұмысын жоғары бағаға лайық деп есптеймін.

Күнделік

       Ағылшын тілі пәнінен мамыр айында таңдалды Ғылыми зерттеу жұмысының тақырыбы бойынша  6 « Ә» сынып оқушысы Ерназар Мөлдір  осы тақырыпта  жұмыс жасады.  Зерттеу жұмысына қатысты  қосымша қажетті материалдар жинақтады.

Атқарылған іс-шаралар Күні Жетекшінің қолы Оқушының қолы
1 Қазақ елінің  ырым-тйыим сөздері жинақтау
2 Ұлыбритания елінің ырым-тыйым сөздерімен танысу
3 Екі елдің жануарларға және тағамдарға айтылатын ырым-тыйымдар
4 Екі елдің ырым-тыйымдарының ұқсастықтары
5 Екі елдің ырым-тыйымдарының айырмашылығы
6 Зерттеу

жаңашылдығы

7 Қорытынды

 

Kazakh beliefs

         A large number of Kazakh beliefs and superstitions can hardly be applied to modern life. The majority of them came from ancient times. Even naturally become a part of today`s life, or, at least, can add a lot to our knowledge of Kazakh culture.

-Kazakhs are always  careful with salt. Food would be tasteless without salt. Kazakhs believe that `the essence of food is in its salt`. Lives of those who have been careless with salt will become salty and bitter until the salt spilt by them dries out.

-A cauldron/kazan can not be left facing the entrance door. It is bad luck if a cauldron slips and falls. It means your destiny is escaping, your very well-being is lost, food becomes scanty.

-One should take care when putting a kettle on the fire  so as not to let the boiling water escape on to the fire. Because the water salt will be burnt in the fire. And burnt salt is a bad omen for daughters of the household. Salt is the decoration of food as the daughter is the decoration of the household. Do not disturb salt and your daughter will not be disturbed.

-Usually, horse mane and tails are not trimmed, to make sure the horse`s owner enjoys good health. When a horse owner dies, people will trim the mane and the tail of his horse to make it look mournful. Therefore, the Kazakh associate the trimmed mane and tails of their horses with mourning and death.

– if a dog follows a houseman leaving his village, people would not try to force it back. The dog is devoted to its owner, and if it wants to go with him it means he will have a happy voyage.

-A pregnant woman cannot have a haircut because it may hurt her motherhood, and the happiness of the child she is bearing.

-If you have a visitor during your breakfast, he or she must have some of your food. There is a saying: `One cannot ignore the morning meal` and `if you don`t have breakfast, the community will refuse you`. Therefore, a morning guest can leave your hame after he or she has  tried some of your food. `One can be senior in age but nobody is senior of food` `Food is men`s support`.

-breakfast is the beginning of a day. Kazakhs believe that a good breakfast eaten in a good humoured atmosphere can be a good beginning for a successful and fruitful day

British beliefs

-You must not open an umbrella inside a house for it may bring bad luck to you.

-tow women should not pour tea from the same tea pot unless they want to have a baby.  It is believed that one will have a baby less than a year later.

-if you are asked for the salt at the table, you must not hand it to the other person. You must put it down on the table in front of them.

-you ought not to light three cigarettes with the same match; the last person will have bad luck.

-you should not put shoes on the table; there might be an argument in the house before long.

-When you spill salt on the table, you must throw three pinches of salt over your left shoulder immediately.

-When you have to go back home after you have started a journey (because you have forgotten something), you must not leave immediately. You`d better/ You had better sit down and count to ten, or from seven backwards, if you don`t want to have an accident.

-you ought to tie an old shoe to the back of the car in which a newly-married couple are leaving for their honeymoon because it will bring them good luck.

Belief — a superstitious tradition, in which you can believe or not believe, but this is an example of people’s life, he is born of experience and tradition.

A woman expecting a child birth is not recommended to step over a rope strung. According to the belief baby’s neck can be entangled with the cord and he could choke.

Pregnant women are not allowed to keep saw, scissor or any other sharp objects, as according to the belief it leads to premature birth.

It is not recommended to rabbit meat for pregnant women as they «can give a birth for children with defects (cleft lip)».

Also, it is not advised to taste camel meat as «childbirth can be delayed till 12 months». If through the specified term the woman do not delivered, a neck of a male of a female camel (drill) will be tied with a white cloth and the pregnant woman should step through a camel.

The hem of the pregnant woman is turned inside in order to avoid abortion. The woman lying in prenatal pangs have a privilege to open all chests the content of which will belong only to her. According to this belief, the childbirth will easier and without serious consequences.

Women who recently gave a birth are not advised to expel dogs that ran into the tent or house. It believed that newly-minted moms can lose teeth.

Swollen breasts of nursing mothers and udder of domestic dairy animals, according to the belief, they recommended to stroke with gloves, which were used for bathing of the deceased body.

Great sin is to do laundry in the holy day for Muslims — Friday. Also, it is not allowed to make laundry during religious holidays (Eid, etc.), it considered as desecration of the holy days.

Water after washing is poured out usually in that place where people do not walk. To step on such water — means to bring home trouble because «all bad left with dirty water».

According to belief, if a girl guest won’t be sited in the honored place where usually sit elders and respected people, then «the owner of the house will have bad luck».

It is not recommended for women to cross the road in front of hiking or horseback riding men and adults, as it can bring misfortune to her.

There is a belief that if wife will clean and gather firewood in a height of three steps, — her husband would leave her for another woman.

Women are not encouraged to leave their hair cropped or drop down into the fire. According to legend, after her death, she would be asked from God: «Where is the hair given by me?»          So women buried their hair at the place where nobody can walk.

It is not allowed to step with feet on cropped nails, they also should be buried.
It is not recommended for women to walk at night to fetch water, as they may be frightened by something and the get sick.

At night, a woman should not hang the washed clothes — as someone can be scared of something and become insane.

Standing with arms on the belt is a bad sign, usually widows stay in such position when they cry and lament their husbands.

Visiting someone’s home and catching owners on the work you should help them, otherwise it believed that your son will be humpbacked.

According to belief, a premature baby was laid for a while in tymak (Kazakh cap with ear-flaps) and then, having carried the baby in the cradle, hung said headdress over his headboard for as many days as he was not a full-term in the womb.

A woman, who for a long time cannot get pregnant, recommended to choose clothes in a large family, which wore children after forty days from the date of his birth. According to belief, after a while a woman gives birth.

For spouses who for a long time did not have babies, according to belief, recommended to wear on the neck pieces of tethers for small cattle, and pray to Allah to give them a child.

At constant miscarriages (or if children, before they reach the year, are dying all the time) — relatives or friends of the family «buy» in this newly become pregnant woman her unborn child.

Adopted child before entering into the family will be handed a knee bone of a sheep or goat, called asyk, and girl with shinbone. Then feast the feat should be arranged where all the guests will witness this solemn event.

Do not hit the children with a broom it can bring them a trouble.
Hitting children with ladle — deprive them of income in the future.

Always be the first in greeting adults. Give honored place to the guest who came to your house.

A good example for the child will be advice — to clean the guests’ shoes, and before they leave to give them their shoes.

It is impolite to speak to girls harsh words.

Girls and boys cannot kick each other it is an indicator of bad manners.
Children crossing the road for elder people and interfering in adult conversations, considered as discourteous.

According to an ancient belief that if my grandfather will drink water from the hands of his great-grandson, then such an old man after his death for sure will go to heaven.

Animals superstitions

One ancient British superstition holds  protected from whooping-cough.

(Bears used to roam Britain but now  they are not seen on our shores)

In some areas black Rabbits are thought to host the souls of human beings.

White Rabbits are said to be really witches and some believe that saying

‘White Rabbit’ on the first day of each month brings luck.

A common lucky charm is a Rabbit’s foot, but not for the Rabbit.

It is said to be badluck if you see bats flying and

hear their cries. In the middle ages it was believed

that witches were closely associated with bats.

In some parts of the UK meeting two or three Ravens

together is considered really bad. One very English

superstition concerns the tame Ravens at the Tower of London.

It is believed if they leave then the crown of England will be lost

If a Sparrow enters a house it is good luck  is an omen of death to one

who lives there. In some areas it is believed that to avoid ill luck any

Sparrow caught must be immediately killed otherwise

the person who caught it will die

It is thought very unlucky to have the feathers of a Peacock

within the home or handle anything made with them.

This is possibly because of the eye shape present upon

these feathers i.e. the Evil-Eye associated with wickedness.

Food superstitions

When finished eating a boiled egg, push the spoon through the bottom of the empty shell to let the devil out

If you have a visitor during your breakfast,

he or she must have some of your food.

If you don’t have breakfast,

the community will refuse you.

Eat grapes at midnight for good luck

On New Year’s Eve in Spain, not everyone kisses as  the clock strikes twelve.

The superstitious eat twelve grapes at midnight for  12 months of good luck.

Christians added this in later to ward off evil spirits, and once

baked on Good Friday morning, one was hung in the house

for a year to bring good luck.

Other superstitions

Do you avoid ladders, pavement cracks and black cats? Or are you far too rational to believe in old wives’ tales? Whatever your stance on superstitions, their origins are fascinating – so in honour of Friday the 13th, here are some of the more bizarre beliefs from around the world.

Stay forever young by carrying an acorn

Forget anti-ageing creams – in Ancient Britain, women carried acorns in their pockets to stay looking young. According to Richard Webster in The Encyclopedia of Superstitions the oak tree was believed to provide longevity and to ward off illness due to its long life.

Don’t eat lettuce if you want to have children

In the 19th century, English men avoided salads if they wanted to start a family. In The Oxford Dictionary of Superstitions (Iona Opie and Moira Tatem, Oxford University Press, £9.99), a book on ‘Plant Lore’ suggests that lettuce was detrimental to child-bearing because it was a ‘sterile’ plant, and «as plants exhibited peculiarities in their actions, so were they supposed to operate on man».

Don’t chew gum at night (In Turkey)

Fancy freshening up before a night out? Stick to mouthwash in Turkey. Harry Oliver, author of Black Cats and Four Leaf Clovers, says that the Turkish believe that «if you’re chewing gum at night in Turkey, you’re actually chewing the flesh of the dead».

Never give gloves as a present…

…well, you can, but you must also receive something in return, or you’ll both have bad luck.

Gloves are attached to a whole host of superstitions , dating back to Medieval times and the days of chivalry, when Knights wore a lady’s glove in their helmets. It’s also bad luck to drop a glove, and then pick it up yourself – derived from the custom of a lady dropping a glove in the hope a prospective lover picks it up.

Off to an important meeting? Look out for a goat.

The goat has been associated with debauchery, lust and the Devil for thousands of years – and is also believed to absorb any evil or harm that may cross your path. That’s why it was once considered good luck to encounter a goat when travelling to an important meeting.

If your skirt turns up, you’ll receive a new dress

Ever get an annoying fold in your skirt when you’ve sat on it strangely? According to old folklore, a new outfit might be coming your way.

The Oxford Dictionary of Superstitions cites that in 1914, it was » a common belief that if the lower edge of a woman’s skirt has become turned up so as to form a kind of pocket, some good fortune, such as a present of a new dress, will come to the owner.»

An awkward silence means an Angel is passing over

This rather whimsical explanation for a lull in conversation is attributed to Dylan Thomas’ Portrait of the Artist – it features the line ‘A host of angels must be passing by … What a silence there is!’.

Eat grapes at midnight for good luck

On New Year’s Eve in Spain, not everyone kisses as the clock strikes twelve. The superstitious eat twelve grapes at midnight for 12 months of good luck.

Go to hospital on a Wednesday

According to The Encyclopedia of Superstitions, an old wives tale says the best day to go to hospital is a Wednesday. Monday is the best day to leave and Saturday is the worst – as it means you’ll soon be back.

Pass a newborn baby through a rind of cheese

In Medieval England, expectant mothers made a ‘Groaning Cheese’ – a large wheel of cheese that matured for nine months as the baby grew. When the ‘groaning time’ or birth came, the cheese would be shared out amongst the family – and when nothing but the outer rind was left, the baby would be passed through the wheel of cheese on Christening day to be blessed with a long and prosperous life.

Tuck your thumbs in if you pass a graveyard

In Japan, if a hearst passes you by, or you walk by a graveyard, you must tuck your thumbs in to protect your parents. This is because the Japanese word for thumb literally translates as «parent-finger» and so by hiding it you are protecting your parents from death.

If a bird poos on your house, you’ll be rich

In Russia, if a bird defecates on you, your car or your property it’s good luck, and may bring you riches. The more birds involved, the richer you’ll be!

Keep a hot cross bun for a year

Much like the tradition of keeping a slice of wedding cake after the ceremony, this slightly grim superstition is supposed to bring luck. Hot cross buns were originally eaten at ancient pagan festivals – but without the cross. Christians added this in later to ward off evil spirits, and once baked on Good Friday morning, one was hung in the house for a year to bring good luck.

Superstition in Britian

Good luck

Lucky to meet a black cat. Black cats are featured on many good luck greeting cards and birthday cards  in England.

lucky to touch wood

lucky to find a clover plant with four leaves

A horseshoe over the door brings good luck. But the horse shoe needs to be the right way up. The luck runs out of the horse shoe if it is upside down

On the first day of the month it is lucky to say `white rabbits, white rabbits , white rabbits ` before uttering  you first words of the day.

Catch falling leaves in autumn and you`re have good luck. Every leaf  means a luck month next year.

Go to hospital on a Wednesday

According to The Encyclopedia of Superstitions, an old wives tale says the best day to go to hospital is a Wednesday. Monday is the best day to leave and Saturday is the worst – as it means you’ll soon be back.

Superstition in Britian

Bad luck

Unlucky to walk a underneath a ladder

Seven years bad luck to break a mirror

Unlucky to see one magpie, lucky to see two, etc.

Unlucky to spill salt, if you do you must throw it over your shoulder to counteract the bad luck.

Unlucky to open umbrella in doors

The number thirteen is unlucky. Friday the  thirteenth is a very unlucky day because Jesus was crucified on a Friday.

Unlucky to put new shoes on the table.

Unlucky to pass someone on the stairs.

Superstition in Kazakh

Good luck

-breakfast is the beginning of a day. Kazakhs believe that a good breakfast eaten in a good humoured atmosphere can be a good beginning for a successful and fruitful day

If a bird poos on your house, you’ll be rich

In Kazakh, if a bird defecates on you, your car or

your property it’s good luck,

and may bring you riches.

The more birds involved, the richer you’ll be!

If a dog follows a horseman leaving his village, people would not try to force it back. The dog is devoted to its owner, and if it wants to with him it means he will have a happy trip.

A horseshoe over the door brings good luck.

But the horse shoe needs to be the right way up. The luck runs out of the horse shoe if it is upside down

Superstition in Kazakh

Bad luck

-A cauldron/kazan can not be left facing the entrance door. It is bad luck if a cauldron slips and falls. It means your destiny is escaping, your very well-being is lost, food becomes scanty.

-A pregnant woman cannot have a haircut because it may hurt her motherhood, and the happiness of the child she is bearing.

-Kazakhs are always  careful with salt. Food would be tasteless without salt. Kazakhs believe that `the essence of food is in its salt`. Lives of those who have been careless with salt will become salty and bitter until the salt spilt by them dries out.  It brings bad luck

A black cat crossing your path will bring bad luck

Superstitions of the similar

A horseshoe over the door brings good luck.

But the horse shoe needs to be the right way up. The luck runs out of the horse shoe if it is upside down

to break a mirror brings  bad luck

You should not put shoes on the table;

it is bad luck

-breakfast is the beginning of a day. Kazakhs believe that a good breakfast eaten in a good humoured atmosphere can be a good beginning for a successful and fruitful day

-Kazakhs are always  careful with salt. Food would be tasteless without salt. Kazakhs believe that `the essence of food is in its salt`. Lives of those who have been careless with salt will become salty and bitter until the salt spilt by them dries out.

Opposite of superstitions and beleafs

BLACK CAT

Good luck in British

  1. Lucky to meet a black cat. Black cats are featured on many good luck greeting cards and birthday cards in England.

Bad luck in Kazakh

A black cat crossing  your path  will bring  bad luck in Kazakh.

Conclusion

I want to finish at the end of my search project with proverb, `different country, different customs.

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